A Rapidly Rising Global Population Raises Economic and Environmental Questions?

We are 1 of over 800 million species that occupy, and once occupied, the planet we call earth. Our collective existence on the planet is about 0.115% of Earth’s total lifespan Our impact far exceeds any other species to date, via Simthesis’s Blog

The Petra in Jordan 🇯🇴 https://www.coffeewithasliceoflife.com/petra-by-night/

In May 2019 the twenty-nine members of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) proposed a start date for the Epoch in the mid-twentieth century, as that period saw “a rapidly rising human population accelerated the pace of industrial production, the use of agricultural chemicals and other human activities.

The Earth’s 4.6 billion year tenure has witnessed millions of cataclysmic moments, tremendous volatility and multiple extinction events that give way to new life forms. The delicate conditions that make Earth conducive for life to thrive are an inconspicuous ongoing process that shapes the entire biosphere. They are Earth’s orbital and rotational spin, solar radiation distribution, the atmosphere and Earth’s positioning in the solar system. 

The latter describes a seamlessly symphonic manner in which life was shaped and formed. Any miniscule disruption to this system would result in large scale extinction and world wide catastrophe in ways we have never seen before. Planet Earth has a chaotic and violent history which underwent at least 5 mass extinctions, some extinctions predate the dinosaurs and through it all Earth stood tall. 

Iceland’s manmade Blue Lagoon 🇮🇸
https://www.businessinsider.com/icelands-blue-lagoon-man-made-2017-11?IR=T

To generate a broader context to this, the planet has witnessed 3 eons, 3 eras (under the Phanerozoic Eon), 11 periods and 7 epochs. The latest called the Holocene which started 10 000 years ago and is epitomized by the evolution of modern humans namely Homo sapiens sapiens. A distinct note worth mentioning is that our ancient ancestors, prehistoric humans, appeared in the mid to late Pleistocene epoch about 100 000 years ago in the form of various hominid species. Astonishingly this means that there was more than one species of human beings on the planet in different regions during this window. 

Modern humans emerge as the major survivors at the start of the Holocene epoch largely due the global geological changes imposed by the end of the last ice age. The sudden global increase in temperatures meant adaptation measures were imposed onto all living species. Key evolutionary adaptation techniques were necessary to out compete rival competitors and the conditions seemingly or rather thankfully favoured our first group of modern humans. The ability to use tools, grow crops and alter the environment to suit our conditions gave our ancestors a competitive edge. Rival hominid species probably struggled to adapt to the warmer temperatures and likely suffered bloody encounters with modern humans. Eventually they became the first victim of human induced extinction…nor would they be the last.

For thousands of years modern humans lived in harmony with nature. Subsistence living cultivated a culture of a minimalist mindset when it came to consumption. With the concept of money and unlimited wealth Unbeknown to them, people buttered for goods and services whilst existing in small village communities. Within 7000 years later, the human race was well in tune with the concept of harvesting goods from nature. The concept of trade, money (Gold, silver, bronze, iron) and travel at an intercommunity level was a set precursor to what would be the most dominant single species the earth has ever witnessed. 

The city of Doha, 🇶🇦
https://www.arrivalguides.com/en/Travelguides/Asia/Qatar/Doha/eating

Numerous wars were waged, empires were established, mass communities formed and humans would go on to invent incredible feats. But three inventions were most significant: fire, the wheel and ships. By the 12th century, human footprint was apparent and the mass exploitation of the ecosystem was epitomized by explorers’ reaching new pristine lands, and establishing gradual pillars of a global interconnected trade system, initiated by the spice trade and silk road routes. 

The most significant moment would come in the late 18th century when England experienced the first wave of factory mass industrialization. The early 19th century signaled a new official epoch in earth’s history. The Anthropocene Epoch, translating to the modern human era. This era is set aside for its significance in the humans ability to heavily extract from nature beyond control. Mankind partnering with machines to alter and subjugate the environment to suit his needs was a revolutionary step for both the planet, mankind and the entire biosphere.

Up until fire was discovered nearly all carbon dioxide emissions were swept up with utter speed by biological producers (Trees, plants, diatoms and photosynthetic algae & bacteria). The planet was largely on a carbon negative net balance during the ice age in the early to mid Holocene. But the balance would be quickly tipped to an overwhelming positive through the accelerated burning of coal, oil and trees. The natural carbon cycle of the ecosystem was officially altered and this would be the sad state of things to come beyond this point. 

Palm Jumeirah worlds largest man made islands, Dubai 🇦🇪
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cnn.com/travel/amp/dubai-palm-jumeirah-20-years-spc-intl/index.htmlhttps://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cnn.com/travel/amp/dubai-palm-jumeirah-20-years-spc-intl/index.html

We are currently living through the 6th major extinction event. Much like the early Pleistocene, global temperatures are on a sharp rise. But this time the sheer scale of the rise is not natural but artificially manufactured. Unlike the end of the Ice age, the rate of global warming is on an exponential rapid rise, not gradual. The rate of species extinctions is at its highest in human history. We are losing species faster than we can study them, mainly through habitat destruction and large-scale commercial pollution. We are single handedly devastating the entire global ecosystem in ways we could not fully comprehend on every ecological sphere. Air, oceans, land, none is spared. The industrial complex is systematically and efficiently decimating the planet’s sustainability pillars in the name of economic growth. 

The previous 5 extinction events resulted in over 90% of all living species wiped off the planet primarily due to a 10 degree global average temperature increase. Millions of volcanic chambers spewed various Greenhouse gases such as Sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide but carbon dioxide (CO2) was the main culprit at play in spiking global temperatures. The mass extinction took thousands of years to materialize. At our current rate of fossil fuel emission we would manage to achieve this level of extinction in less than 400 years of industrialization. 

City congestion in Kampala, 🇺🇬
https://www.theigc.org/blog/kampala-where-urbanisation-is-not-synonymous-with-industrialisation/

The Anthropocene age is largely driven by mass exponential consumerism leading to mass over harvesting and exploitation of the ecosystem in exchange for financial wealth and supreme mass decadence. Mass extraction, in the form of mining, commercial fishing and deforestation, lead to environmental crimes. The latter has shown to drastically eat away at our pristine quality of life, overall it is polluting our food, health, minds and facilitates the moral degeneration of society as a whole. It fosters a consumer based culture that reinforces the accumulation of material wealth in an attempt to fulfill inner void.

The disconnection between man and nature indirectly led to the formation of the novel sars-cov-2 (Corona) virus which has subjected us to the world’s first global pandemic. This is a sign of things to come in terms of how events will systematically unfold in the turn of the mid to late 21st century. The tell-tale signs of a global climate crisis were first detected in the late 1940s when climate scientists discovered that global temperatures and carbon dioxide pollution levels were consistently on a sharp rise. The more information was gathered, the more startled scientists became about this phenomenon. The first set of solar panels introduced to the world was in the late 1960s. The technology existed but sadly was suppressed by industry giants to buy more time. Unfortunately, it worked and now we are faced with a climate pandemic like no other. 

Coal mine field in Jharia 🇮🇳
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cnbc.com/amp/2015/12/02/indias-jharia-coal-field-has-been-burning-for-100-years.html

Climate Change cannot be defined as a single ‘natural’ disaster or a global pandemic wave like the COVID-19 outbreak. It is a culmination of natural disasters on excessive steroids collectively breaking down the wider interconnected ecosystem, to deliver the most devastating events simultaneously and continuously over multiple generations non-stop. Wave after wave of intense climate disasters, it will not simply pass and no miracle solutions from a lab can curb it. Once we are past the point of no return, the global devastation will be relentless to say the least. The only solution is prevention, proactively introducing means to curb Greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible. Delaying this (Climate action) will only push us to the pivotal point sooner. 

Contrary to popular belief, the dinosaurs were not the first living set of biota (living organisms) to face mass extinction. The Anthropocene era is another extinction phase, in which the Planet will eventually survive and reset over many decades and centuries long after humans have left (for extraterrestrial means). By continually plunging the ecosystems natural resources we are doing far more harm to our overall population fitness than the actual planet. No amount of money printing, political bureaucracy and exponential GDP growth will do us any good once the manure hits the fan.

Rooftop urban farming in Toronto 🇨🇦
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The problem is the unwillingness to work with nature and contribute to the seamless role of the symbiosis between humans and nature. Humans are part of the ecosystem and henceforth we are subject to the realms of biological and ecological set rules. Our normal interactions with nature can be significantly improved through simple acts stemming from awareness and being environmentally conscious. Choosing not to litter, separation of our waste, limiting energy consumption (while saving on electrical costs) at home. Showing a consumer preference for environmentally sustainable products & sharing awareness where possible. 

The onus is on us to play an active and collective role in becoming environmentally conscious because the mandate to save the planet and humanity is far too big to mandate solely to politicians and big businesses. Our industries and statesmen and women will not save us from this alone. A lot of work is being invested in the science community to reach the common citizen and children on how each can play their part. New research papers recommending solutions on the matter are published regularly and multinational conferences such as COP will go a long way to foster multilateral cooperation towards positive change. A coordinated strike against environmentally unethical corporations and the fossil fuel sectors is much needed along with a holistic approach to the wider society to ensure that prevention is a sure result. 

A renewable energy farm in Queensland 🇦🇺
https://www.accordelectrical.com.au/2021/06/30/queensland-commits-2bn-to-renewables/
Green hydrogen storage tanks in the 🇺🇸
https://www.nsenergybusiness.com/features/green-hydrogen-natural-gas/

Mankind remains unequivocally opposed at the peak of the planet’s food chain. Our devastation and subjugation of planet Earth is no longer in question. Our ambition for growth, trade and prosperity singled us out to be more than just a participatory species, but we have become an apex keystone player in all environments. The laws of nature do dictate that for every upward swing in population number, a mass decline is inevitable and humans – much like any other animal- will not be spared from this model. More can be done and more should be done by everyone because we are all beneficiaries of a burning planet knowingly or unknowingly. 

Conceptual design of the Mars space colony
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.space.com/amp/41697-hp-mars-colony-challenge.html

Humans form part of a large variety of living organisms on the planet. We are 1 of over 800 million species that occupy, and once occupied, the planet we call earth. Our collective existence on the planet is about 0.115% of Earth’s total lifespan, making it hard to grasp the fact that our impact far […]

The Anthropocene epoch: The age of human kind. — simthesis’s Blog

Study: Meatless Diets Produce 59% Less Greenhouse Gas Emissions — Cooking with Kathy Man

Emily Baker wrote . . . . . . . . .

Diets rich in plants and low in red meat and sweet snacks produce less greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), a new study into the effects of diet on the climate crisis has concurred.

Meat accounts for more than a quarter of diet-related emissions, the paper reads. Additionally, dairy made up 14 percent, with cakes and biscuits amounting to eight percent.

Plant-based diets triumphant

Upon comparing diets, researchers found that those who ate meat produced almost two-thirds more emissions than vegetarians.

The study is titled Variations in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of individual diets: Associations between the GHG and nutrient intake in the UK and available on Plos One.

And within it, authors urge for more stringent policies championing plant-based diets.

“Healthier diets had lower GHG emissions, demonstrating consistency between planetary and personal health,” it reads.

Diet and emissions

It’s not just emissions that diet affects. As the researchers outline here, our food choices contribute to air and water quality, soil health, biodiversity, all encapsulated within climate breakdown.

According to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), animal agriculture is responsible for 14.5 percent of GHGs.

Other sources claim this number is far higher – at even 87 percent, as many argue figures don’t include the effect of land clearing for farming.

Source: Plant Based NewsAdvertisementshttps://c0.pubmine.com/sf/0.0.3/html/safeframe.htmlREPORT THIS AD

Is Eating Meat Worse Than Burning Oil?October 27, 2019In “Environment”

Does A Vegetarian Diet Contribute to Climate Change?December 26, 2015In “Food”

Link Between Processed Meat and Illness Sparks Calls for Integrated PolicyNovember 23, 2021In “Food”

Study: Meatless Diets Produce 59% Less Greenhouse Gas Emissions — Cooking with Kathy Man

Salty and Sustainable: Why Seaweed Farming Is Good for the Planet via Vancity Michelle

Beneath the choppy surface of British Columbia’s coastal waters, grow entire forests of a largely-untapped sustainable resource.

Seaweed.

Seaweed, also referred to as kelp, is the focus of a growing industry off the coast of Vancouver Island. While still in the early stages of development, this type of farming offers many environmental benefits on top of potential agricultural and industrial uses.

What Is Kelp Farming? 

Kelp farming is the process of growing and harvesting marine life such as fish, shellfish, plants and algae.

Kelp farming can grow vast amounts of seaweed within a very small footprint.

This “vertical farming” works by attaching thin lines of kelp seedlings to ropes which hang beneath moorings on the ocean’s surface. Thanks to the unfussy nature of kelp, very little work and attention is required once the seedlings are placed. Kelp farmers need only intermittently check on their lines, and within six month the kelp will be ready to harvest. 

Kelp can also be grown alongside oysters, clams and muscles. Baskets of shellfish are hung in tiers from the moorings, with kelp growing from the lines between the baskets. 

While kelp farming is relatively new to North America, an already booming industry exists in China’s Yellow Sea and other parts of Asia. Seaweed has long been a staple of Asian diets, and 99% of the world’s seaweed is currently grown there. 

The Benefits of Kelp Farming

The rapid growth rate of kelp along with it’s relatively low start up cost, are part of why kelp farming has caught the attention of mariners across multiple regions in North America. 

However, the benefits definitely don’t stop there, because kelp is way more than just a lucrative business. 

The production of kelp is a fantastic way to fight climate change!

Think of kelp as the trees of the ocean. Much like our forests on land, kelp forests absorb and store carbon dioxide. Seaweed helps to suck up the CO₂ in our oceans, which in turn allows the ocean to absorb more CO₂ from our atmosphere. It’s a completely natural cycle that could make huge impacts on climate change.

In a 2012 study by the University of the South Pacific, it was found that if 9% of the ocean was covered in seaweed farms, the collective seaweed growth could absorb 19 gigatonnes of CO₂ (psst – that’s a lot of CO₂).

On top of carbon reduction, aquaculture like kelp farming is considered multi-trophic. That’s a fancy word, but what it means is that kelp farms allow multiple species to grow and thrive in the same environment. That is why seaweed farms are fantastic for shellfish production, because the natural de-acidifying effects of kelp help to stimulate the growth of shellfish. 

What Is Kelp Used For?

While kelp is still a growing part of the North American food chain, it has long been incorporated in Asian cuisine. You may be familiar with its use in popular Japanese dishes like sushi. Seaweed is incredibly versatile and can be used in smoothies, salads, soups, and stews. 

Kelp is a protein-rich algae, and has potential to be used as a substitute to environmentally damaging protein sources, such as meat. It also has multiple health benefits including reducing inflammation, anti-aging and stamina enhancement.

In addition to it’s superfood health benefits, seaweed is a great option for sustainable agriculture. In a 2021 study, it was found that adding seaweed to livestock feed could reduce methane emissions from livestock, and lower feed costs significantly. 

Outside of food production, kelp can also be used as a base for sustainable products. These products include shampoos, toothpastes, biodegradable packaging, bioplastics and pharmaceuticals. Seaweed has even been used to create textiles and fabrics! 

The Future of Kelp Farming in B.C.

In recent years, kelp farming has grown rapidly along the coasts of North America. In the U.S. kelp farming got its start in the Atlantic waters of the East Coast, but the industry has now expanded to California, Alaska and of course, British Columbia. 

In just the last five years, multiple kelp operations have popped up along the coast of Vancouver Island, most notably Cascadia Seaweed.

Cascadia Seaweed is hoping to become North America’s largest seaweed producer. They plan to expand their operations to 1,200 acres of ocean by 2025, eventually looking to reach a total of 6,000 acres.

According to Bill Collins, the chairman and founder of Cascadia Seaweed, kelp farming could bring significant job opportunities to coastal communities, and pull in nearly $1 billion to the GDP of coastal British Columbia.

Beneath the choppy surface of British Columbia’s coastal waters, grow entire forests of a largely-untapped sustainable resource. Seaweed. Seaweed, also referred to as kelp, is the focus of a growing industry off the coast of Vancouver Island. While still in the early stages of development, this type of farming offers many environmental benefits on top […]

Salty and Sustainable: Why B.C.’s Seaweed Farming Is Good for the Planet — Vancity Michelle

ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND POLICIES via Aishwarya Sandeep

ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND POLICIES - featured image

Environment is a comprehensive term. It includes a wide variety of phenomenon. Environment includes the external conditions, resources etc to facilitate the interaction of various organisms. Law is all pervasive. Environmental law is  a body of law which consists of statutes, common laws, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment. We humans are cruel and selfish in nature. To satisfy our needs we exploit the natural resources and these activities tends to be harmful for environment. Some environmental laws are imposed to regulate the quantity and nature of impacts of human activities. Other environmental laws are preventive in nature in order to control the human activities. Environmental crime refers to violation of laws intended to protect the environment and maintain public health. Industrialization possessed a serious concern for the protection of environment.

IMPORTANT LEGISLATIONS:

  • The National Tribunal Act, 2010: It has been enacted with the objectives to provide for establishment of a National Green Tribunal (NGT) for effective  and speedy disposal of cases. The sole objective is to enforce legal rights to environment and give relief along with protection and conservation of forests and natural resources. The Act intends to establish a tribunal in order to deal with the environmental laws related to air, water, forests etc.
  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981: This Act mainly focuses on how to control and prevent air pollution. It imposes strict rules to combat air pollution. Under this Act, a separate body is formed i.e. SPCBs to inspect pollution control equipment and manufacturing processes. The Air Act empowers the State Government to declare the areas as air pollution control areas after consultation with the SPCBs.
  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974: This Act has been enacted to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution. Under this Act separate Boards are established in order to carry out the aforesaid purposes. The main objective is to maintain standards through discharge of pollutants from various water bodiesNon- compliance with the rules may impose penalties on private individuals or industries.
  • The Environmental Protection Act, 1986: This Act provides for the protection and improvement of environment. Proper framework is prepared to handle threatening situations and protect the ecological sensitive areas. Certain measures are taken  such as regulation of location of industries, disposal of hazardous wastes and protection of public health and safety etc. The sole objective is to set standards for emissions and discharge of pollution in the atmosphere and improve the quality of environment. Non-compliance of the Environment Act may impose penalty and punishment to the violators. The Violator will be punishable with imprisonment up to 5 years or with fine up to Rs. 1,00,000 or with both. If the offence is continued, then an additional fine of up to Rs. 5,00,000 for every day will be levied.
  • Hazardous Wastes Management Regulations: Hazardous wastes includes any physical, chemical, toxic and explosives characteristics in nature which can cause damage to environment. E-Waste Management is a part of this, with the objective to reduce the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. The hazardous wastes generated need to be channelized through proper sewage system for environmentally sound recycling.
  • Biodiversity Act, 2000: India is rich in biological diversity. One of the major challenges is in adopting an instrument which helps to realize the objectives of equitable development. The sole objective of this legislation is to regulate the access to biological resources so as to ensure equitable sharing. Prior approval is required before obtaining any biological resource from concerned authorities.

IMPORTANCE:

Environmental law and legislation are imposed in protecting humans as well as the different plants and animals in the ecosystem. Environmental law ensures that individuals, governments do not cause harm to the environment or its ecosystems and live with harmony. Waste Management is one of the biggest problems that is faced by different nations. Environmental laws ensures that the waste management process doesn’t impact the environment or human health. The main concern of such laws is to make sure the industries meet all legal obligations with respect to the environment. Officers and rank officials are appointed to enforce such laws without interference from outside. The environment officers and enforcers need to be protected by law so that they can be able to do the job in an efficient manner.

CONCLUSION:

Environmental Regulation is necessary to prevent the upcoming threats to environment and ensure protection through measures. But, citizens in environmental management are not sufficiently institutionalized in most of the local areas. This can be due to lack of awareness or the local bodies are reluctant to perform their duties. Also, the economic, human and technological resources to meet the requirements of efficient local environmental management are limited. We see numerous legislations are framed and passed by the Parliament. Regulatory measures are considered by some people. Although, individuals and community groups undertaking local projects for environmental remediation. The strategies of partnerships , selp-help and community empowerment have been used to encourage participation. Through, this community groups environmental problems are raised and redressed to the best possible manner with combined efforts of public and Government.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Aishwarya Says:

I have always been against Glorifying Over Work and therefore, in the year 2021, I have decided to launch this campaign “Balancing Life”and talk about this wrong practice, that we have been following since last few years. I will be talking to and interviewing around 1 lakh people in the coming 2021 and publish their interview regarding their opinion on glamourising Over Work.

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Environment is a very comprehensive term. It includes a wide variety of phenomenon.Environment includes the external conditions, resources etc to facilitate the interaction of various organisms. Law is all pervasive. Environmental law is  a body of law which consists of statutes, common laws, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment. […]

ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND POLICIES — Aishwarya Sandeep

LIGHTNING AND THUNDERSTORM via Art in Tanzania Blog

Lightning is the brilliant electric spark discharge in the atmosphere occurring within a thunderstorm, between the clouds. The flashing of light produced by a discharge of atmospheric electricity and a flashing of light is the result of discharge of atmosphere electricity within a thunderstorm cloud way up into the sky. Many small bits of ice frozen raindrop bump into each other as they move around in the air. All of these collisions create an electric charge and usually occurs to the areas that are mostly concentrated with metals.

Lightning can occur during anytime of the year but lightning casualties are highest during summer. July is generally the month with the most lightning and the strikes mostly occur in the afternoon. In fact, two thirds of all lightning casualties occur between noon and 6pm.

Examples of places or countries that are affected with lightning are the all regions of USA, Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Missouri and North Carolina. Florida is considered as the lightning capital of the country with more than 2000 lightning injuries over the past 50 years.

According to the U.S department of health and human services, they have reported some categories which are:

  • Males are, five times more, likely than females to be struck by lightning. Around 85% of lightning fatalities are men
  • People aged 15-34 years account for almost half of all lightning strike victims (41%). The majority (89%) of lightning deaths occurs among Caucasians.
  • About one third (32%) of lightning injuries occur indoors.

Lightning is the results of thunderstorm from a charge in the normal electrical field between the surface and the atmosphere, in fair weather the surface is negatively charged, and atmosphere is positively charged. Owning to intense friction of air within the Cumulonimbus cloud, higher charges are built up with positive charges in upper portion and negative charge in lower portion. When the potential difference becomes more pronounced, discharges [lighting] occur from the cloud to the ground, from cloud to cloud or within the same cloud.

The occurrence of lighting involves different process as explained bellow;

  • The sky is filled with electric charge. In calm skies they are positive + and negative[-]charged
  • Inside a thunderstorm the electric charge is spread out differently.
  • A thunderstorm is made up of ice crystal and hailstone.
  • The ice crystal have positive charge (+) and the hailstone have a negative charge (-).
  • The hailstone is pushed to the bottom of the thunderstorms by its downdraft.
  • During the thunderstorm the Earth surface has a positive charge. Because the positive charge attract the negative charge at the bottom of the thunder clouds wants to link up with the positive charge of the earth surface.
  • Once the negative charge at the bottom of the cloud gets the large enough, a flow of negative charge rushes towards the earth surface. This is Known as the “stepped leader,”
  • The positive charge of the earth surface is attracted to this stepped leader so as a flow of positive charge moves into the air. When the stepped leader and the positive charge from the earth meet a storm.

THUNDERSTORM

Refers to violent convective storm accompanied by thunder and lightning usually localized and lived. Vertical air motion, considerable humidity, and instability combine to create towering cumulonimbus clouds. Frequently occur in conjunction with other kinds of storms like hurricanes, tornadoes, fronts especially cold fronts in mid latitude cyclones and orographic lifting

Types of Thunderstorm

  • Orographic thunderstorms – caused by air that is forced up by a mountain or hillside.  
  • Air mass thunderstorms – is the result of localized convection in an unstable air mass.
  • Frontal thunderstorms – occur along the boundaries of weather fronts (e.g. cold front).

 Characteristics of thunderstorms

  • Thunderstorm last for a short duration, seldom two hours
  • It consist of down and updraft of air with electric charges and thunder.
  • It is associated with heavy precipitation or hail.
  • It is usually destructive in nature as, it can kill people, animals, and destroy property.

Condition leading to the formation of thunderstorms

  • There should be prevalence of atmospheric instability such that air updraft can set off.
  • There should be availability of ample supply of atmosphere moisture for condensation to take place and maintain a storm.
  • There should be some agent to start convection as uplift over a hill or mountain.

STAGES OF THUNDERSTORM

The thunderstorm has three main stages which are cumulus stage, the mature stage, and dissipating stage.

The cumulus stage; this is the first stage of the thunderstorm .its dominated by updrafts that create the cloud formations which are cumulonimbus cloud necessary. The continuous strong updrafts prevent precipitation from falling .This occur where super cooled water droplets and ice crystal coalesce, then fall initiated a downdraft.

The mature stage; this once the storm has developed it will enter the mature stage. This stage is dominated by both updrafts and downdrafts and is the most dangerous stage. Falling precipitation is indicator that the storm has reached the mature stage. Lighting severe turbulence and hail can all be encountered during this time. It is also most active at this time.

The dissipating stage; this is the last stage once the updrafts begin to die out the storm is dominated by downdrafts and enters the dissipating stage. This signals that the thunderstorm is dying out. In this stage it is where downdrafts dominate and turbulence cease.

          THUNDERSTORM FORMATION

The action of warm air rising and cool air sinking plays a key role in the formation of severe thunderstorm, if the warm surface air is forced to rise because is less dense than the surrounding air. This occur when the cold air and warm air meet each other whereby the warm air is forced to rise due to be that it is less denser and the cold air sinks, so the warm air in the atmosphere will settle and condense slowly. 

Two of the most important ingredients for thunderstorm formation is instability and moisture Normally in the atmosphere, there is unstable air that causes the disturbance in the atmosphere and also the moisture that is caused by the cooling of warm air in the atmosphere might result to the occurrence of precipitation, even the presence of moisture and unstable air results to the thunderstorm formation

Thunderstorms are formed by uplifting of warm and humid air, the air that is formed is forced to move upwards due to it being denser normally it becomes cooler and mixes humid air clouds and water droplets that lead to precipitation or rain.

When humid air is lifted , it will be cooled and the moisture in the air will condense to form cloud. So, after the warm air rises upward to the atmosphere, it normally meets the moist air or moisture that forces it to cool and become humid, this situation leads to the formation of the clouds known as cumulonimbus. Normally these clouds are formed after the cooking of warm air containing the cloud within positive charges and negative charges and negative charges that once come into contact leads to the occurrence of thunderstorm.

Upon further uplifting, the clouds will extend higher water droplets in the clouds continue to grow in size as the clouds extends further upwards ice crystals may form because of low temperature. This means that due to the denser air rising upwards higher in the atmosphere forces and causes the clouds known as cumulonimbus to be formed higher away in the atmosphere and also due to the cool temperature in the higher atmosphere forced the water droplets became pieces of ice crystals so this becomes very essential for the clouds formation.

Finally thunderstorms are produced by the cumulonimbus cloud normally the cumulonimbus clouds contain two different charges that is positive charge known as crystal and the negative known as hail so once these come across they produce a steeper light known as lightning that comes with a heavy and huge sound known as thunderstorm.

What should we do during lightning and thunderstorm period?

In summary;

By Amon Samwel – Art in Tanzania internship Lightning is the brilliant electric spark discharge in the atmosphere occurring within a thunderstorm, between the clouds. The flashing of light produced by a discharge of atmospheric electricity and a flashing of light is the result of discharge of atmosphere electricity within a thunderstorm cloud way up […]

LIGHTINING AND THUNDERSTORM — Art in Tanzania Blog

Hurricane Ida Curfew set due to storm threat via Mississippi’s Best Community Newspaper

Hurricane Ida

Government officials have set an 8 p.m. curfew for Adams County due to dangerous travel conditions likely to result from Hurricane Ida. For the safety of employees and others, business owners are also being asked to to send employees home and close by 5 p.m. According to Tom McGehee, Adams County Emergency Operation Center Planning […]

Curfew set for Adams County due to storm threat — Mississippi’s Best Community Newspaper

10 HUGE TREES WHO GIVE SHADES via EliteExtant

Everybody needs a friend.” “The true meaning of life is to plant trees, under whose shade you do not expect to sit.” “Love is like a tree, it grows of its own accord, it puts down deep roots into our whole being.” “Until you dig a hole, you plant a tree, you water it and […]

10 ELITE HUGE TREES WHO GIVE SHADES — EliteExtant

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Some coastal areas are more prone to devastating hurricanes. Meteorologist explains why via The Current

Warm water, little wind shear and moisture spark storms but coastlines and offshore shelves help determine strength.

Some coastal areas are more prone to devastating hurricanes – a meteorologist explains why — The Current

Every coastline in the North Atlantic is vulnerable to tropical storms, but some areas are more susceptible to hurricane destruction than others.This story also appeared in The Conversation

To understand why as the region heads into what’s forecast to be another busy hurricane season, let’s look more closely at how tropical storms form and what turns them into destructive monsters.

Ingredients of a hurricane

Three key ingredients are needed for a hurricane to form: warm sea surface water that’s at least about 80 degrees Fahrenheit (26.5 C), a thick layer of moisture extending from the sea surface to roughly 20,000 feet and minimal vertical wind shear so the thunderstorm can grow vertically without interruption.

These prime conditions are often found in the tropical waters off the west coast of Africa.

Hurricanes can also form in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, but the ones that start close to Africa have thousands of miles of warm water ahead that they can draw energy from as they travel. That energy can help them grow into powerful hurricanes.

Wind currents set most tropical storms on a course westward from Africa toward the Caribbean, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. Some drift northward into the midlatitudes, where the prevailing winds shift from west to east and cause them to curve back out into the Atlantic.

Others encounter cooler ocean temperatures that rob them of fuel, or high wind shear that breaks them apart. That’s why tropical cyclones rarely hit northern states or Europe, though it does happen.

Time of season also influences hurricane paths

Early in the season, in June and July, sea surface temperatures are still warming and atmospheric wind shear slowly decreases across the open Atlantic. Most early-season hurricanes develop in a small area of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico where prime conditions begin early.

They typically form close to land, so coastal residents don’t have much time to prepare, but these storms also don’t have ideal conditions to gain strength. Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi, as well as Central America, are more likely to see hurricane strikes early in the season, as the trade winds favor an east-to-west motion.

As surface waters gain heat over the summer, hurricane frequency and severity begin to increase, especially into the peak hurricane months of August through October.

Toward the end of the season, trade winds begin to shift from west to east, ocean temperatures start to fall, and cold fronts can help divert storms away from the western Gulf and push them toward the Florida Panhandle.

Shape of the seafloor matters for destructiveness

The shape of the seafloor can also play a role in how destructive hurricanes become.

Hurricane strength is currently measured solely on a storm’s maximum sustained wind speeds. But hurricanes also displace ocean water, creating a surge of high water that their winds push toward shore ahead of the storm.

This storm surge is often the greatest threat to life and property from a hurricane, accounting for about 49% of all direct fatalities between 1963 and 2012. Hurricane Katrina (2005) is a prime example: An estimated 1,500 people lost their lives when Katrina hit New Orleans, many of them in the storm surge flooding.

If the continental shelf where the hurricane hits is shallow and slopes gently, it generally produces a greater storm surge than a steeper shelf.

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As a result, a major hurricane hitting the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast – which has a very wide and shallow continental shelf – may produce a 20-foot storm surge. However, the same hurricane might produce only a 10-foot storm surge along the Atlantic coastline, where the continental shelf drops off very quickly.

Where are the hurricane hot spots?

A few years ago, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration analyzed the probability of U.S. coastlines’ being hit by a tropical storm based on storm hits from 1944 and 1999.

It found that New Orleans had about a 40% chance each year of a tropical storm strike. The chances rose for Miami and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, both at 48%. San Juan, Puerto Rico, which has seen some devastating storms in recent years, was at 42%.

Hurricanes, which have sustained wind speeds of at least 74 miles per hour, were also more frequent in the three U.S. locations. Miami and Cape Hatteras were found to have a 16% chance of a direct hit by a hurricane in any given year, and New Orleans’ chance was estimated at 12%.

Each of these locations is vulnerable to a hurricane because of its location, but also its shape. North Carolina and Florida “stick out like a sore thumb” and are often grazed by hurricanes that curve up the east coast of the U.S.

The probability that a named storm tropical storm or hurricane will affect a location at some point during hurricane season. Todd Kimberlain/AOML NOAA

Climate change changes the risk

As sea surface temperatures rise with the warming of the planet, more areas outside of these usual hurricane regions may see more tropical storms.

I analyzed tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic that made landfall from 1972 to 2019 to look for changes over the past half-century.

During the first six years of that period, 1972-77, the Atlantic averaged four direct hits per year. Of those, 75% were in the usual hurricane-prone areas, such as the Southern United States, the Caribbean and Central America. Six storms made landfall elsewhere, including New England, Canada and the Azores.

By 2014-19, the Atlantic averaged 7.6 direct hits per year. While the U.S. took the majority of those hits, Europe has been showing a steady increase in cyclones making landfall. Major hurricanes – those with sustained wind speeds of 111 miles per hour and above – are also more common than they were in the 1970s and ‘80s.

See data on when and where hurricanes hit

While southern coastal locations of the United States may be the most vulnerable to tropical cyclone impacts, it is important to understand that a devastating cyclone can hit anywhere along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

The National Hurricane Center is forecasting another busy season in 2021, though it is not expected to be as extreme as 2020’s record 30 named storms. Even if an area hasn’t experienced a hurricane in several years, residents are advised to prepare for the season as if their area will take a hit – just in case.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Get past the headlines with a closer look at issues in Savannah and Coastal Georgia.

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The American alligator’s tail can regenerate giving them a functional advantage when living in murky aquatic habitats via Awesome facts

The American alligator’s tail can regenerate like that of other reptiles

Some lizards have developed strategies to regrow their docked tails, but until now little was known about the much larger American alligator’s ability to regenerate it. A team of scientists has discovered that the youngest alligators can recover part of this limb, but this differs from the original structure.

The case of the lizards, with their “removable” tails, is well known. These small vertebrates are capable of re-creating nerve cells, like other lizards, and regenerating this limb. The strategy of shedding the tail is common to escape predators, but what about much larger reptiles, such as the American alligator?

So far, it was not well documented if this crocodilian, one of the largest in the American continent, could have this ability to recover its enormous tail. A team from Arizona State University and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, both in the United States, shows for the first time that the youngest specimens, caught in the wild, had recovered their tail up to 18% of the full length of their body, although they were morphologically different from the original sections.

To analyze the structure of the regenerated limbs, the scientists performed MRIs and X-rays combined with anatomical and tissue organization studies. The results, published in the journal Scientific Reports, showed that the new tails lacked skeletal muscle – unlike other lizards – and formed complex structures with a central skeleton composed of cartilage and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue intertwined with blood vessels and nerves.

“What makes the alligator interesting, apart from its size, is that the re-growing tail shows signs of regeneration and wound healing within the same structure,” explains Cindy Xu, lead author and researcher at the American university.

This overproduction of connective tissue was similar to wound healing or fibrosis in mammals, the scientists found. “We were surprised to discover scar-like connective tissue rather than skeletal muscle in the regenerated crocodile tail,” Xu adds.

The partial limb growth of these crocodiles does share similarities with the regenerated tails of New Zalanda tuataras and the regenerated limbs of adult Xenopus frogs, which have a cartilaginous endoskeleton surrounded by connective tissue without skeletal muscle.

What does regeneration contribute?

The study confirms that between the different species of reptiles and other animals, the regenerative capacity varies, and can be costly. In the case of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), scientists believe that regenerating their tails can give them a functional advantage when living in murky aquatic habitats.

The regenerated alligator tail is different from the original. Although the scales grow back, a tube of cartilage (in yellow) replaces the bone (in ocher) and skeletal muscle does not reappear (in red). In its place is a large amount of fibrous connective tissue (in pink). / Arizona State University

This finding provides more information on how reptiles are the only amniotes – a group of animals with backbones among which humans are found – to maintain the ability to recover their lost limbs. “The ancestors of alligators, dinosaurs and birds separated about 250 million years ago. The study shows that the alligators have retained the cellular machinery to regenerate complex tails while the birds have lost that capacity ”, emphasizes Kenro Kusumi, co-principal author, and professor and director of the School of Life Sciences of the University of the State of Arizona . So at what point in evolution was this ability lost? So far, scientists have found no evidence of fossils of dinosaurs, whose lineage led to modern birds, with regenerated tails.

Furthermore, understanding how different animals can regenerate tissues could help develop medical therapies, according to the researchers. The team hopes that these findings will uncover new therapeutic approaches to repair injuries and treat diseases such as arthritis

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